Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review Article

Acharya B*, Rayamajhi A**

Abstract


Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) is one of the major health related burdens worldwide, causing high morbidities and significant number of mortalities, accounting for more than 800,000 new cases every year. HNSCC usually develops in males in the 6th and 7th decade. Major risk factors of HNSCC are the consumption of tobacco and alcohol and infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus. HNSCC often develops from preexisting dysplastic lesions. Particular chromosomal alterations appear to be associated with distinct stages of tumor progression. Management of head and neck cancers is complex and involves multiple modalities therefore a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the backbones of the treatment. Majorities of the patients present in the locoregionally advanced disease. Similarly, almost 10% of newly diagnosed patients present with distant metastatic disease. Almost 60% of these patients even after aggressive, site-specific multimodality therapy, fail locally and up to a 30% develop distant metastases. Targeted therapy and Immunotherapy are recent advances in the management of refractory HNSCC to conventional treatments.


Key words: Chemotherapy, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Immunotherapy, Radiationtherapy, Surgery.

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