Assessment of Traumatic Head Injury on Computed Tomography Scan in Tertiary Care Hospital of Kathmandu Nepal

Thapa BR*, Kayastha R**, Shrestha S***, Shrestha A*****, Tuladhar AS*****, Pradhan S******,

Abstract


Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) of head has nowadays become the investigation of choice for the assessment of patient with traumatic head injury (THI). The aim of this study was to describe CT findings of head injury patients.


Method: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital over a period of one year (August 2016 to July 2017). Epidemiological information, mode of injury and findings in CT head were recorded.


Result: Amongst CT scans of 480 patients with head injuries, 243 cases with abnormal CT findings were included in the study. Most cases (62.5%) of head injuries were in adults (16-60 years). The most common mode of head injury was road traffic accident (RTA) (58%) followed by fall injury (29.6%). The most common CT findings in THI was scalp injury (48.6%), skull fracture (27.6%), pneumocephalus (16.4%), subdural hemorrhage (SDH) (11.9%), epidural hemorrhage (EDH) (10.3%), hemorrhagic parenchymal contusion (10.2%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (8.6%). The most common site for fracture was frontal bone (34.3%) and most common intracranial hemorrhage associated with cranial fracture was EDH (67%). SDH was most common in infant (20%) whereas EDH was most common in adults (11.8 %). Frontal region was the most common site for fracture (34.3%), EDH (37.3%) and SDH (43.8%) whereas temporal region was the most common site for cerebral contusion (58.5%) and SAH (63.5 %).


Conclusion: CT scan is a frontline imaging modality in assessment of traumatic head injury for early detection and prevention of intracranial complications.


Keywords: Computed Tomography Scan, Head Injury, Road Traffic Accident.

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